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The Ogieship or Kingship institution of the Bini’s is a natural evolution from Odionwere system. The arrival of migrants with new ideas of government coupled with the growth and merger of villages into larger communities, created new problem which the Odionwere system could not effectively solved in the isolation of the independent villages. This necessitated the coming together of the Edionwere in adjoining and merging communities for meetings to deliberate and find solution to problems of common interest. In this way, the council of Edionwere or Iko- Edionwere was instituted as a new feature of the Odionwere system.

It is from the Iko-.Edionwere that the Ogieship or kingship evolved. Headship or leadership of the Iko-Edionwere was not based strictly on seniority or age. This was because some of Edionwere were not willing to surrender their communities’ independence and subordinate themselves to higher authority. The leadership of the Iko-Edionwere

Ogiso Igodo did a lot to strengthen monarchial rule in the Igodomigodo. As already shown, he continued to maintain the iko-Edionwere in the administration of Igodomigodo. This seems to have been a means of retaining the support of as many Edionwere as possible and thereby broadening the base of his supports and followers. But he came to rely more on the Edionisen or five courtiers. This made the Edionisen to become more important in the council ot state and the day to day running of the administration consequently the Edionisen developed vested interest in the monarchical system. Hence when Ogiso Igodo Died rather than revert to the old system of gerontocracy or rule of Odionwere, they were persuaded to invite Ere from Udo to succeed his grandfather as Ogiso Ere was the second Ogiso and by alkl standards, the most celebrated of all the Ogisos of Benin. Ere ruled for about two generations (fifty years) and contributed a lot to the consolidation of the monarchical system. He is still very much remembered in Edo history and many names such as Esesogie, Otamere, Erebo, Eresoyen, Eregbowa, Eresuyi,Erediauwa, Eregie and so on.

Ere was Igodo’s grandson and was brought up at Udo (the home village of Igodo’s great grandfather) when Igodo died Ere was invited by the Edionisen who installed him as Ogiso in Ugbekun. They placed on his head a crown made of cowries. This crown originally belonged to
(ABOUT 66A.D-100A.D)

Orire was the third Ogiso and the last of Ogiso’s Dynasty. He was the eldest surviving male child of Ere. He was born when Ere was already very old. Ere had laid a good foundation for him and the people had identified themselves with the monarchy hence they accepted Orire as their king. He was very young when he came to the throne as “ Orire the Young”.
When Orire came to the throne of Igodomigodo, he inherited a kingdom hobbling with productive activities and land of “smiling plenty” in which trade and industries, leather workers, iron smatters and carvers practiced their craft with freedom and enthusiasms 
Trade in cowries became widespread and was displacing trade by barter which was still existing side by side with less intensity

Orire authority was established in the Iyokovia, Iyekorhionmwon, Akugbe, Iyekuselu, Oroghodo  (Agbor) Ohosa Owan, Esan and Akoko- Edo Areas.  For effective administration of these areas,  Orire commissioned some nobles as Enigie and sent them to those areas  as rulers. He did this because the kingdom was now too large for him to control. With the help of these Enigie, he was able to rule the kingdom. This was another innovation that Orire introduced to the kingdom. The edionwere now came under the Enigie
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Ogiso Odia 385 A.D -400 A.D

When Ogiso  Odia died, the kingship was passed to Ighido who hailed from Ugboha or Igun Ughoha near Errie quarters. He used to be a professional black smith who made knives, hoes, chains and domestic iron materials in his ward before he became Odionwere of Igun Ugboha. He was reluctant to accept the crown, because he claimed that the god of iron did not approve of it. But the people prevailed on him that it was God’s wish that he be made king of the people. He bowed to their wish and ruled from the palace at Uhunmwidunmwun. He also had a bald head which shone like the moon. He is remembered for always celebrating his Ogun Festival at the palace and ruled for about fourteen years.


When Ogiso  Odia died, the kingship was passed to Ighido who hailed from Ugboha or Igun Ughoha near Errie quarters. He used to be a professional black smith who made knives, hoes, chains and domestic iron materials in his ward before he became Odionwere of Igun Ugboha. He was reluctant to accept the crown, because he claimed that the god of iron did not approve of it. But the people prevailed on him that it was God’s wish that he be made king of the people. He bowed to their wish and ruled from the palace at Uhunmwidunmwun. He also had a bald head which shone like the moon. He is remembered for always celebrating his Ogun Festival at the palace and ruled for about fourteen years.


Ogiso Evbuobo was chosen from Ikpokpan quarters in Igodomigodo as the third Odionwere Ogiso, before he was made Odionwere Ogiso. He looked very sickly and many people thought he would not last long on the throne but as soon as he was crowned Ogiso he became strong and ruled for 19 years. He died at the age of 110 years. He was remembered as a good farmer, a hunter a music lover. The Agba drum was always played in his time. Because he reigned for a long time, the palace building was expanded and extended, to accommodate his many children and followers.


After the death of Evbuobo, there was struggle for seniority between Ogbeide the Odionwere of Ugbague and the Odionwere of Okhegie. The struggle for the post was difficult for the people to settle immediately because they were contemporaries. The Odionwere of Okhegie seemed poised to win because he looked more intelligent and energetic, but unfortunately, he died during the struggle. Ogbeide was crowed. People feared Ogbeide because of the sudden death of the Odionwere of Ukhegie. Also he was very rich and employed people to trade for him. Though old, he was a proud king who always speared out his hands like the Eagle when walking and was fond of rubbing his chest all the time. He died during (Ugie) Eho Festival day. He was nick named as “Ogbeide the proud Eagle” He reined for fifteen years.


One of the greatest diviner who became Ogie Odionwere was Idudia known as Ogiso “Emehe”. He was chosen from Emehe quarters in the present areas of Owinna in Igun Eronmwon. Many people in the city had known him because of his profession as a diviner- an Oguega  oraclist. He told stories when divining and interpreted his spiritual message. Only clever people were able to understand his interpretation of the oracle, but when understood and adhered, his divination prescription hardly failed. Because of this people went to Emehe quarters to consult the oracle in his place. He became known as “Emehe the Oraclist”. After he became Ogiso he still continued his ‘Oguega’ practice and used his ‘Ewaise’ or servants to consult for people. He ruled for 19 years. There was a reported movement of stars in the sky before he died. This was a sign of his greatness

Ogiso Ekpigho (ABOUT 466 A.D-482 A.D)

Ogiso Ekpigho hailed from Use quarters. The name Ekpigho meaning “bag of Money” was derived from the fact that he was a money lender. He called himself Ekpigho and of course he never knew that he would the day become a king. He was generous with his money but was merciless with defaulters and even seized their properties. Some defaulters even made themselves slaves in orders to repay the money they borrowed. Many people hated him for his monetary business, and this turned these people against his candidature as the Ogiso Odionwere , but the Edionisen could not do otherwise, because he was the most senior Odionwere at that time, and it was his turn. They also thought that he would uplift the society with his wealth.

He developed pawn-ship in the ancient Benin; pawn-ship is a system whereby debtors worked for their creditors until the loan was paid. The service of the pawns represented both the collateral security and the interest on the loan. This system called in Edo “Ovien Aruosa”. The borrower can surrender a ...
Ogiso Akhuankhuan was chosen from Iguisi quarters of Igodomigodo. This old man was another great economist. He was a trader of clothes and had travelled widely selling clothes. His parents came from Okhunmwun near Oluku. He was the only surviving son of the 16 children the mother had.Having lost so many children at birth, the mother went to a town called Ugbo-Maghan in the area of Mahin Island and with the help of medicine men, he was born and given the name Akhuankhuan - meaning one that cannot be killed by any evil spirits. Because of the circumstance of his birth, some people said that , he was “Igbakhuan’‘Abiku When he grew up, he was very meticulous with things. He was fond of saying “If you have one piece of cloth keep it well, so that it can last for many years”. He even taught people how to wash clothes and keep them neat and was exponent of good hygiene. He was so fond of using one piece of
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Efeseke hailed from Urubi quarters and was horn after the father’s death. He was called by the name of his mother in Coronation because the wealth and name of his mother over shadowed his own name. This was why people thought that he was a woman and that some women were made Ogiso. 

As the name goes, Efeseke rneans ‘someone who is wealthy’ his family reared animals in different villages in the kingdom. Efeseke himself kept cows and goats at the site of the present 3rd Centenary in Benin. He had people who were taking care of these animals in the farm and sold the surplus. The only problem he had, were the attacks of Carnivorous animals eating the goats. The animals were Leopard and Lions.As there were no guns in those days to fight these carnivorous animals, they fought them with the setting of some
traps known as ‘Oguagha’ and ‘Urubu’ Yet they were difficult to kill . 

When Efeseke was made the Ogiso of Igodomigodo, there was joy and was food for everyone to eat. His period was marked with much food and animal supply. The economy was buoyant. He was called “Ne O gbee emila ne ikian re”‘He who killed cowfor the flies to eat’. It means that there was surplus meat
He died at the age of 108 years after 14 years on the throne. He was loved by all.


Irudia was the 9th Ogiso Odionwere and he was chosen from Ego. Three communities vied for this post. There were Edionwere from Oka, Ikpokpan and Ego.They claimed the same age and almost all of them were very intelligent: The Edionwere had become conscious of the position of Ogiso. They enjoyed it because of the powers vested in the office
They all claimed to be about 90 years old in their respective villages. The Edionisen in order to solve the problem requested the Odionwere of Ikpokpan to step down because Ikpokpan quarters had Odionwere Ogiso before (414 A D. - 432 A D.) He was also hard hearing

The argument then went to the “Oka and Ego Communities. They were asked to say the month of the year they were born to different Edibnisen the Odionwere of Ego said that he was born in February whiIe the Odionwere of Oka said that he was born on JuIy. The Odionwere of Ego had the day.

He was then crowned the 9th Odionwere Ogiso. His rule uneventful, he could hardly summon meetings to discuss affairs of the nation unless when told by the Ediornsen and the Council of Elders. He died after 14 years on the throne.


Orria the 10th Ogiso Odionwere, ascended the throne in about 522 A.D. He was chosen from Oregbeni - (Ore Ogbeni) the elephant killers’ camp or village at Ikpoba Hill. Orria was one of the greatest elephant hunters in the history of Oregbeni and Igodomigodo. He was trained by his hunter father Odenede. It is said that Orria was the first man to tame elephants at Oregbeni and had five tamed elephants ,was nick named ‘Orria ne ukoko Eni’ meaning ‘Orria the elephant trainer’. It was from his time that the people started training elephants for domestic use.

When an elephant was old enough, they ‘could kill it and remove the tusk for the carvers of Igbesenmwan to sculpt unto beautiful art and craft works. He became Odionwere Ogiso in 522 A.D. when he was already 95 years old. Though he was not the oldest Odionwere at that time in the city of Igodomigodo .yet the Edionisen (Oliha, Edohen, Ero, Ezomo nd Eholo Nire) aproved his appointment

Imarhan the 11th Ogiso Odionwere to be crowned came from Oka near Idogbo. The mother was a great potter and he grew up helping her mother to make pots He is said to be more skilled in pot making than the women in Oka He made all types of pots (including designed ones), smoking pipes (Ukoko), and terracottas which were sold in the local markets at Oka and Agbado At the age of 95 Odionwere Ogiso reached his turn, without his struggle for it

When Oliha went to Oka for a visit to a member of his family, he saw the old Odionwere still busy with his children, teaching them how to make beautiful pots and terracotta He asked Odionwere Imerhan of Oka how old he was. “I am about 95 years old now. I am the oldest man in the whole Oka” When Orria died some Edionwere struggled for the post as usual, but their ages were lesser than that of Odionwere Imerhan of Oka. Oliha then remembered and sent for him. This was how he was made Odionwere Ogiso.

When he was crowned, he decorated the palace with pots and terra cottas. He loved beautiful things. He died at the age of 106 after ruling for 11 years. He was remembered for his beautiful decorations, pot making, terra cottas and human and animal figurines. He made figures of snakes, fishes, birds, insects on ritual pots. Some of these pots were for Osun god of herbs and Olokun god of the sea.


Etebowe was the 12th Ogiso Odionwere of Igodornigodo. He was a powerful boxer and wrestler from Oroghotodin quarters which is the present modern Oba market in Benin City.
In his early days Etebowe as he was called was feared by because none of them could withstand him in wrestling and boxing events. They thought that he had one bone in his arm and he broke things easily with his hands. It was said that ‘he killed a leopard in Efesekes cattle and goat ranch. At his old age as Odionwere of Oroghotodin, he was still feared as a very powerful man with wonderful strong fist. “A one bone man”, “destroyer of Leopards” and “iron broker” were his praise names as Odionwere Ogiso. He died at the age of 117 year old.


Odion was the l3th Ogiso Odionwere rn Igodornigodo. He was chosen from Ukhegie quarters In his youth, he was a hunter and master story teller who knew a lot of tales Because of this talent he was always invited by people to tell them stories and it is said that one of the stories could last for as much as three days In addition, he used his stories to draw attention to the ills and virtues of his society. He was very informed intellectually. When he was crowned Ogiso, his Ukhegie quarters jubilated because they remembered in about (432 A. D ) how  their Odionwre who struggled with Ogbeide mysteriously lost his life Odion was very old before he was crowned. He spent 17years on the throne. People from far and near in Igodomigodo felt his Impact because he had been popularly known in his wisdom of storytelling.


Emose was the l4th Ogiso Odionwere to be crowned in Igodomigodo and was from’ Errie quarters. Like Ogiso Efeseke from Urubi, His father died before his birth. He was brought up by his trader mother who was a great trader known in the whole kingdom for her trade in clothes and beads as well as her wealth which made people to call her “Emose Okpose ne Olose” meaning “Emose, the beauty Queen and Beauty Maker”. His real name was Eyoto, but his mother’s name stuck to him because his mother’s fame and wealth overshadowed him.

He is remembered to be fond of exclaiming "Hi re Emose ne lyernwen" meaning "Oh Emose my mother"even after being made Odionwere of Errie quarters. Moreso he took to his mother’s trade which associated him largely with women. Since he was more known by his mother’s name as “Ovbiemose” When he was crowned Ogiso Odionwere, he became known as Emose. This makes people to think that he was a woman. As earlier stated, no woman ever ruled in Igodomigodo, because no woman could become Odionwere since they were never members of the age grade. Ogiso. Emose ruled for 16 years and died peaceful. He is remembered to have established an ancestral altar for his mother and decorated it more than that of his father. He always celebrated the annual festival for the honour of his mother.


Ororo the l5th Ogiso Odionwere was crowned in Igodomigodo at the age of 80 years. He was not the oldest Odonwere in the City, but he was the most active and intelligent Odionwere Others who were qualified for the position were infirm, senile and unable to face rigors of administration Some historian even said that he was a woman This was not true Ogiso Ororo was from Eyanugie quarters where iron was smelted and the home of blacksmiths He was brought up as a blacksmith in Eyanugie. Ororo traveled to other areas outside lgodomigodo either to sell his iron materials or to obtain some for his Smiting work. He made chains, knives, hoes, needles, scepter, cutlasses, axes and other ritual iron materials for the services of Ogun, he god of iron.

Ororo therefore was well known by the people of Igodomigodo and outside the Ogiso kingdom, hence he received congratulatory messages. From far and near when he was crowned Ogiso Od!onwere. Ogiso Qroro promoted the working of iron in Igodornigodo He used to say say that “he who worked

Erebo the l6th Odionwere Ogiso to be crowned in Igodornigodo came from Okhorho quarter. He started life as a fisherman, and grew up near Ikpoba river where the present Dam is located. He combined this trade with the making of canoes which he sold to other people who used tthem for river transportation. So, one could see that Erebo was an industrious man who had traveled far along the creeks of Delta, Ughoton, Benin river, Orhionrnwon River, Ethiope River (Olokun) and the sea which the Binis call Adaghasa - meaning the endless sea.
Erebo knew more about water bodies than the forest and had vast kiowledge and stories about water creatures.

At his coronation, instead of being happy he was sad because he felt that he had been restricted from river and sea business, and had wished to live and die a fisher man. He worshipped Olokun the god of the sea in his palace He ruled for 14years and died at .the age of 104


Ogbomo was the 17th Odionwere Ogiso and was chosen from Ugbowo quarters of Igodomigodo. His parents came from Ozoguo clan in the areas of Ugbogiobo. The Ozoguo were very powerful war-like people and there were also great herbalists from the area but presently they have scattered from their original home and they are now occupying villages such as Oluku, Odighi, Utekon, Igbekhue, Osasimwionba. Uwan Aihuohabekun. Idumwehigie etc

However, Oghomo was born at Ughowo but spent most of his early at Ozoguo. Though, he was farming at Ugbowo yet he was also an herbalist and an Osun, god of herbs worshipper. He always go to Ozoguo to collect herbs because some of the leaves he used were found  only in Ozoguo forest He was very versed in herbs and treated many alignments including those peculiar to women and children. Because of this his house was always filled with people especially
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Agbonzeke was the 18th Odionwere Ogiso of Igodomigodo and he hailed from Upper Uselu or what we now call Eguaedaiken. Apart from farming, he was better known as a philosopher, an historian, a composer and a poet. He was very versed in Edo folklore and was a man of great thought.’ He abhorred lying, swearing, quarrelling and fighting hence he was also being referred to as Ere II. He spoke of the journey of the mind saying “that the mind journeys over the horizons of life thriving on the infinity of time, discovering that tomorrow’s events are that of yesterday’ s and that yesterday was born to bring  today so that we may realize the futility of life.

Time tortures us, contradicts our life’s puzzle and frustrates us and yet giving us hope for tomorrow of what may happen or yet to come, then the struggle continues until we are gone from the surface of the wonderful world” People always gather to listen to this great philosopher and ......
OGISO EDIAE (665 A.D-685 A.D)

Ediae was the l9th Ogiso. Odionwere in Igodomigodo and he was chosen from Igbesanmwan quarters. Ediae of Igbesanmwan was already an Odionwere of Igbesanrnwan and the INE as welI... Ine title was and still is the highest title in Igbesanmwan quarters and he holds controls and supervises carving  business and culture at Igbesanmwan. For him to attain that title Ediae must have advanced in carving profession in his quarters as a master carver. Ediae was already an old man of about 95 year before he was made Ogiso Odionwere in Igodomigodo. This made him an experienced man in administration. When he arrived at the palace his people started decorating the palace with ah sorts of carved and molded sculptors

These arts formed arrays of beautiful objects in the palace. People came from every where to look at the beautiful carvings. The crowning of Ogiso Ediae marked another episode in reviving ah artistic works in the ancient Ogisodom. Ogiso Ere who founded both lgbesanmwan and Orogbeni re-echoed with artistic vibration during Ogiso Ediae. He was the last odionwere Ogiso in Igodomigodo.


During the period of the Edionwere Ogiso, were threats of collapse of the Ogiso  system because of the infighting that  characterized the system.

The anarchy situation called seriously for reforms that would ensure stability that existed under the Igodo dynasty. Ogiso Orriagba was the first Ogiso Odionwere to revolt against the convention of Odionwere Ogiso System. He was the son of a renowned native doctor at Oroghotodin in the area now called ldumwebo near Oba market. Under his father, Orriagba was trained as an Ighede drummer and became popular. It is said that’ “without Orriagba, no Obo (Diviner’s) dance would be complete”. People shunned diviners dance performances where he was hot present. It was believed that his drumming made the diviners to transcend to the world of spirits. In youth, he won the expression of “Orriagba N’egho’ meaning “Orriagba the adorable’. He knew all about lghede and nothing about medicine or divination. His father

Odoligie was the son of Orriagba. He succeeded his father and reigned for 55 years. He was a warrior king. It was as if his father knew what awaited him, before sending him to live with Ozua he warrior, Okaevbo and great medicine man of Ughoton. Ozua trained Odoligie as a warrior and strengthened him with medicines. He was the 24th ogiso in Igodomoigodo

When he came to the throne, he felt that the only way he would succeed his father and exercise power over ediohwere and Edion evbo and some district enigie who was clamouring for return to the Odionwere Ogiso system, was by fighting and defeating them .Under his rule, he put down with cruel firmness the revolts of the anti-royalists who have been opposing his father’s administration. His war chiefs were Esagho, Ozua, Olou and Iken. The greatest of them was Iken whose function in the palace and war front was the beating agba drum or summoning people to the palace for meeting Iken grew to be one of the greatest war leaders during the reign of Odoligie. It is said that Iken always killed twice the number of people killed by Odoligie in the war front. Odoligie used Iken and his well drilled army to expand the Kingdom.


Ogheh was the original name of Ogiso Uwa but to show that he was born into prosperity, he took the title Uwa meaning prosperity. He lacked the war like qualities of his father, but he reined tor 54 years.

He was one of the richest Ogiso that ruled in Igodomigodo. He was very ostentatious and spent lavishly on the grandeur of his court as well as the large body of attendants or stewards of the chamber known as Ibierugha They ensued that he lives a life of ease, by rendering him sundry services including spying on the subjects and vassals. He appointed only those who were prepared to do his bidding as ministers (Uko).

Throughout the 54 years on the throne, Uwa and his courtiers lived in the utmost splendour and extravagance. ‘Uwaymwen’ meaning?‘I love Wealth or “Enruwa” meaning ‘he who is in wealth, were

Eheneden whose original name was Egiebo envisaged a peaceful and enjoyable reign hence he took the title Eheneden at his coronation. Eheneden means “settled situation” 
Eheneden inherited large and developed Ogisodorn with ah the Enigie, Edionwere, and other vassals under control, and sending their taxes and tributes collected down to Ogiso in Igodornigodo. 

In the southern part, the Iguabode and Urhonigbe who had been defeated and subdued by Odoligie had also been welded to the nation. Eheneden consolidated the large Ogisodorn, he inherited by posting messengers who behaved like ministers to all parts of the Kingdom. 

He made some Uko (ministers) to supervise certain areas and reported back to him. With this method of administration, he was able to put the Eriigie under check, and curtail crisis before they get out of
Ohuede was the grandson of Orriagba’s second son called Enowe, who was junior to Odoligie. Ohuede was the only grandson of Enowe and Okagbé to Orriagba’s family. He had also attained the age grade of Edion-Evbo but was yet to qualify as Odionwere. He was therefore, qualified to be crowned Ogiso, in accordance with the law made- by Oriagba, that unless one is an Edion-Evbo, or a titled Chief.he cannot be crowed an Ogiso. The Edionisen who became the king makers since the reign of Orriagha invited Uhueue and crowned him   Ogiso. This was to ensure Continuity in the blood and dynastic line.
It was believed that such hereditary system on blood line was responsible for the stability of the kingship system.
Ohuede inherited a well developed and large kingdom that spread over a large expanse of territories. But its trading activities which were contributing to its economy were impeded by tolls and duties exacted by overlords through whose lands it passed in the far North Africa. It was not possible at this time to carry on trade because of the religious wars and high way robbery known as (lkpata)......
OGISO  ODUWA 917 A.D – 967 A.D

Oduwa was the eldest son of Ohuede and succeeded his father as Oglso. His coronation was a victory for the Edionisen (king makers).

There was to the struggle again between the Edionwere in Igodomigodo. But the king makers averted this. They quickly went into action by crowning Oduwa, the senior son of Ogiso Ohuede.
The Ohuede dynasty was thus secured against the wishes of the Edionwere who had wanted the post thrown open for contest. But the Edionisen feared that if they did this,their own hereditary titles would be compromised and were thus determined to secure their hereditary titles through a hereditary kingship. This made them committed to the cause of Ohuede dynasty and they stood by it. Because of this defeat of their ambition and aspirations, most of the Edionevbo and Edionvere refused to pay obeisance to Ogios. Some even refused attending council meetings and taking part in functions in his palace
OG1SO OBIOYE ( ABOUT 917 A.D- 1012 A. D)

Obioye the son of Oduwa carne to the throne at about the age of 40 years. He inherited a large kingdom that depended largely on foreign trade: His father Ogiso Oduwa had encouraged and expanded trade contacts and outlets. Due to dependence on this trade food production was neglected at home. Many people took to trading and pursuit of money and showed no interest in farming. This caused initiation in the land with many people having a lot of money but there was little food to buy with it this problem has been developing since the rein of Oduwa but became acute during the reign of his son Obioye.The importance of agriculture as a source of food is never appreciated until there is crop famine. It is when there is crop or food scarcity that some people know the value of the production of food.

This is why Benin proverbs reminds us;
“A. gha rruan gheku Vbe uko ebo
Evbare o re odion”
Meaning: If we dress like the chief
Food is the first thing in life.
The problem of inflation inherited by Obioye was further compounded........
OGISO ARIGHO (1012-1059 A.D)

Ogiso Arigho came to the throne and met the kingdom in shambles. He was very wealthy before he was crowned Ogiso. He was a great merchant and spent most of his time outside Igodomigodo particularly in Yoruba, Ilorin, Nupe,Igb.irra and lgbomina lands. He was outside the kingdom during the great famine because of his involvement in trade. He had the knowledge of economics and brought his previous experiences in money to Igodomigodo.

He was determined to curb the inflation that had virtually paralyzed the kingdom’s economy. He stands out as the greatest economist of ancient Benin. He introduced a system of double payment by a decree which mandated anybody buying anything and anywhere with money to pay twice or double the price fixed for the item bought. The other half of the money paid went into
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OGISO OWODO (1059 - 1100 A.D) (31)

Owodo was the last Ogiso of the Ohuede dynasty, the last Ogiso of Igodomigodo and the last Ogiso of Evhuoto. His rule caused a lot of problems and confusion that led to two generation (50 years) of interregnum. He had inherited a kingdom that was still recovering from the effects of the great famine. There was now sufficient food but there was only little (cowries) money in circulation and the economic still remained depressed. Arigho’s money was still kept in the bank four years after Owodo was crowned.

Owodo was a very weak ruler, who lacked political will tact and vision hence he lost control over the Nobles and title holders. The Nobles (Enigie, Okaevho, Edionevbo) and title holders that were created by the past Ogiso since the days of Odoligie and Orriagba dynasties had grown and became very wealthy, particularly through the use of slave labour. They had been encouraged since the reign of Ohioye and Arigho to be independent of the palace and provide for themselves through farming. The
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